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Chapter Fourteen: Communication and Negotiation

Communication is the process of transferring information, meaning and understanding from sender to receiver. The basic model of communication involves encoding, the act of constructing a message, the medium, the mode or form of transmission, decoding, the act of interpreting and noise, potential interference with the transmission or decoding of a message [nota bene: noise can also occur with the encoding, consider the confused mind]. Verbal modes can be oral, written and non-verbal modes can include dress, intonation, gestures, expressions and body language.

Chapter Thirteen: Groups and Teams

There is a continuum between individuals, groups and teams with degrees of independence and collaboration. A group is defined here as a small set of people, from three to twenty, who have some degree of mutual interaction and shared objectives. A team is type of group which is highly interdependent, coordinated and with a strong sense of menbers' personal responsibility for achieving group outcomes. The basic types of groups include a set of formal groups (command/supervisory groups, project/task forces and committees) and informal groups.

Chapter Twelve: Motivation

Motivation is a set of forces that energise, direct and sustains behaviour. The source of motivations depends on characteristics of the individual, the job and the work situation. Examples of the individual includes needs, attitudes, and goals. Examples of the job include feedback, workload, tasks and discretion. Characteristics of the work situation include the immediate environment and organisational actions.

Chapter Eleven: Leadership II: Approaches and Issues

Blake and Mouton's managerial grid is a method that measures the degree that managers are task-orientated and people-orientated.

Chapter Ten: Leadership I: Basic Concepts and Processes

Leadership is a process of influence that can occur potentially anywhere in an organisation. It is not a set of behaviour limited to any role. Organisational leadership is defined as an interpersonal process involving attempts to influence other people in attaining some goal. Effective leadership is that which assists a group or an organisation to meet its goals and objectives and person successfully.

Chapter Nine: Individual and Group Decision Making

Decision making is a process of specifying the nature of a particular problem or opportunity and selecting between available alternatives to solve a problem or capture an opportunity. Decision making has two aspects; the act and the process. The act involves choosing between alternatives. The processes consists of formulating, identification of the problem or opportunity and acquiring relevant information and the solution being the desired course of action.

Chapter Eight: Planning

Objectives are end states or targets that an organisation's managers aim for. Plans are the means by which managers hope to reach the desired state. Planning is a decision making process that focuses on the future of an organisation andhow it will achieve its goals. Strategic plans focus on the broad future of the organisation and incorporate both external environmental demands and internal resources into managers' actions. They are typically 3-5 years in scale, and the most complex with high levels of interdependence.

Chapter Seven: Organisational Structure and Design

Organisational structure is the sum of ways an organisation divides its labour into distinct tasks and coordinates them. Organisational design is the process of assessing the organisation's strategy and environmental demands and then determining the appropriate organisational structures. Organisational charts illustrate relationships between units and lines of authority between supervisors and subordinates. Differentiation is the extent to which tasks are divided into subtasks and performed by individuals with specialised skills.

Chapter Six: Strategic Management

Fundamentally, the objective of strategic management is to determine, create and maintain competitive advantage, the ability to win consistently in the long-term in a competitive situation. Competitive advantage is created through the achievement of five qualities; superiority, imitability, durability, non-substitutability and appropriability [ugh].

Chapter Five: Ethics and Social Responsibility

Managerial ethics is the study of morality and standards in business conduct. Corporate social responsibility is the obligations that corporations owe to their constituencies such as shareholders, employees, customers and citizens at large. Ethical dilemmas involve making a choice between two competing but valid options which both choices resulting in undesired outcomes. Ethical lapses are decisions contrary to an individual's stated beliefs and policies of the company.

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