Chapter Twelve: Motivation

Motivation is a set of forces that energise, direct and sustains behaviour. The source of motivations depends on characteristics of the individual, the job and the work situation. Examples of the individual includes needs, attitudes, and goals. Examples of the job include feedback, workload, tasks and discretion. Characteristics of the work situation include the immediate environment and organisational actions.

Motivation theories include content theories and process theories. Content theories focus on what needs a person is trying to satisfy and on what features of the work environment seem to satisfy those needs. Maslow's needs hierarchy is an example from basic physiological and safety, to social belonging, to esteem and self-actualisation. Acquired needs theory focuses on learned needs that become enduring predispositions for affiliation, power and achievement. Two-factor theory focuses on the different effects of intrinsic job factors and extrinsic situational factors. Job enrichment increases the complexity of a job to provide greater responsibility, accomplishment and achievement. The job characterstics model focuses on motivational attributes of jobs through emphasising three sets of variables; core job characteristics, critical psychological states, and outcomes.

Process theories deal with the way that different variables combine to influence the amount of effort people put forth. Equity theory focuses on individuals' comparison of their circumstances with those of others and how such comparisons may motivate certain behaviour. Expectancy theory focuses on the thought processes people use when they face particular choices between alternatives, especially alternative course of action. Effort (E) -> Performance (P) -> Outcome (O) with a valence (V) resulting. Or Effort = (E -> P) * (P -> O) * V. Social cognitive theory focuses on how individuals think about information obtained by their social environment with self-efficacy being the individual's confidence in their own abilities to mobilise motivation, and the cognitive resources to successfully execute a specific task with a given context. It includes enactive mastery, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion and physiological or psychological arousal. Goal-setting theory is a process theory that assumes human action is directed by conscious goals and intentions.

Reinforcements and consequences can arise as positive reinforcements, negative reinforcements, punishments, extinction. Positive reinforcements are desirable consequences that increase the likliehood of behaviour being repeated. Negative reinforcements are the undesirable consequences that prevent a behaviour form being repeated by removal. Punishments are undesirable consequences that applied to decrease undesirable behaviour. Extinction is the absence of positive consequnces lessening the likelihood of that behaviour in the future.

Social influences for motivation includes the influence form the immediate workgroup, the influence of supervisors and subordinates, and the influence of the organisation's culture. Core values fowrds work varies between cultures; Americans support competition, risk-taking, material possessions and freedom. The Japanese, group harmony and belonging. Arabic cultures emphasise reputation, family security, religion and social recognition. Work centrality is the general importance that working has to the life of an individual. It is very high in Japan, quite high in the United States, but comparatively lower in Israel or Germany.