Unless otherwise specific references are full cited in Facilitating Lifelong Learning: Tertiary & Adult Teaching & Learning Unit Information & Learning Guide
Theory of emerging adulthood, with emphasis on variable social amd cultural categories and brain maturation. (Tanner, Arnett, Leis, 2009)
Distinctions between adult and child learners. Biological and Neuro-hormonal. Cognitive operations (Piaget). Moral reasoning (Kohlberg). Psychosexual (e.g., Freud)., Psychosocial (e.g., Erikson). Note that Erikson points out that adulthood is not a homogenous period. Concepts include life-span education, continuing education, critical education, recurrent education, community education, education for adults. (Burns, 1995)
Adults are independent (Dependence). Adults need to know the reason for learning (Need to Know). Experience provides foundation (Resources). Adults need to be responsible (Self-concept). Adults interest have immediate relevance (Readiness). Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented (technical) or purpose (liberal) (Orientation). Adults respond better to internal motivators (Motivation). c.f., summary by Burns (1995) Other theories of andragogy come from Freire (breakdown barrier between teacher and student, work out student context and needs), Dewey (guiding and cooperative role, awareness of capacity and experience, learning for growth), Bruner (discovery learning, multiple right answers), Rogers (self-actualising goals, secure environment).
Adults engage in further education for goal-orientation, activity-orientated, learning-orientated. Adults are self-directed learners. Knowles says that andragogy-pedagogy not aged based (but surely a continuum?). General characteristics – mutuality of responsibility, activities based on real needs of participants, participation, self-direction, teacher’s role as resource and facilitator, learner’s experiences basis of learning, open and democratic environment, concern for the worth of the student. . Also see Fluid and crystallized intelligence (Horn and Cattell, 1966, NiG). (more from Burns, 1995).
Theories of Andragogy. Developed by Knowles (1978, NiG), influenced by Dewey. Also in CR (Knowles, Holton, Swanson, 1998). Beyond andragogy looks at individual learner differences; cognitive (general mental abilities, primary mental abilities, cognitive controls, cognitive styles, learning styles) personality (attentional and engagement styles, expectancey and incentuve), prior knowledge. Learning how to learn; kinds of learning - natural learning, formal learning, personal learning; aspects of learning – reason, emotion, action; domains of learning – technical, social, developmental (from Gibbon 1990 in Knowles etc).
Stage theories in adult development: Levins task developmental adult stages, Eriskon’s theory of lifespan identity developmental. Loevinger’s stages of ego development (childhood). Adult thinking includes dialectical thinking, relativistic thinking, other post-formal operations (e.g., problem-finding). All in Knowles etc.
Lifelong Learning. Continued learning is inseparable to life. Unconscious and universal. Careers used to change slowly if at all. UNESCO’s Learning to Be 1971, lifelong process for all. Profile requires an inquiring mind, “helicopter” vision, information literacy, personal agency, repertoire of learning skills (Candy, Crebert, O’Leary, 1994) Avoid never-ending spiral of specifications, concentrated in community of practice. Discipline-based knowledge vs socially distributed knowledge. Neurological change from rules-based cognition to neural network for readiness (know-that, know-how). Situated learning for apprentice-like knowledge and learning, become part of the community. Professional practice to professional competence; no place for transmission approach to learning. Question of what balance between workplace and university knowledge; preference with the former. (Gonczi, 2004)
Self-Determination Theory (Learner Autonomy). Self Directed Learning. Most important goal of adult education? Recognise individual and special needs. Learners take responsibility for learning. SDT focuses on the degree of self-motivation and self-determination, as a personality characteristic and process which can be fostered. Process is internal and external. Successful use of learning contracts. Reflective learning (ie., adds to biography with slight disjuncture) is empowering. (Harris, 1993). Self-regulated learning (SRL) is learning that is guided by metacognition, strategic action, and motivation, includes “scientific questions” (why? how? when? what? etc), psychological dimensions (motive, method, time), task conditions, self-regulatory attributes, and processes. Process content will vary across professions (e.g., writers have a word limit per day, athletes have training goals etc) (Zimmerman, 1998).
Self-Efficiacy (SE): Introduced by Bandura (1977), refers to judgments of capabilities, acquired from different sources, integral to socio-cognitive theory (see SRL). Triad of effort, persistence, achievement. Different to outcome expectations, although related (calibration, very high correlation c90%) (Shunk and Pajares, 2004).
Educational practises coincide with the needs of business and industry. Behaviouralism, following by cognitivism in 70s, recent socio-cultural. Three parts of SC theory; genetic and developmental analysis of mental functions, higher functions rooted in social relations, social and individual psychology mediated by signs. The social cognitive perspective looks at the personal beliefs, task behavior, and environment. Extend socio-cultural theory to adult learning; zones of proximal development, internalisation of skills and knowledge, scaffolding, intersubjectivity, cognitive apprenticeship, assisted learning. Variation with younger, middle-aged, and older adults in content matter, presentation, euphemera, and . (Bonk & Kim, 1998). People select more self-concordant goals as they age (Sheldon 2009), c.f., also future-time orientation (Dembo & Eaton, 1977) on motivation for proximal and distal goals.
Pressue on “objectively identify effective learning”. This can be counterproductive. Typology of knowledge and intentionality. The intentional and planned learning of that which others already know. Workplace learning needs to focus on integration into a community of practise rather than objective attainment tests. Unplanned adaoption and improvement of ongonig practice. Modifcation of existing capacity. Intended learning of new capabilities.Unplanned novel learnaing. (Hodgkison & Hodgkinson, 2007).
To teach is to create a space where the community of truth is practiced. Therapeutic community Civic community of democratic traditions, negotiation etc. Truth is not democratic, marketing model of efficiency and quality management. Palmer (1998)
Knowledge is Constructed: People construct knowledge for themselves. Knowledge is based on categories of social interaction. People determine their own knowledge. Meaning and points of view do not exist independently of the learner. Knowledge is relativistic, not absolute. What is learned may not be what the teacher intends to learned. What is learned depends on what is already known. Learning is ongoing. Learners have final responsibility for learning. Constructed meanings have common characteristcis. Teachers who apply transmission knowledge will be threatened. Three major conceptions of learning; Quantitative (learning is how much, teaching is transmission) Institutional (learning is about validation, teaching is orchestration of teaching skills), Qualitative (learning is understanding and interpretation, teaching is facilitation, student-centered) (Biggs, Moore, 1993).
Flawed model creates suggestion that knowledge is equivalent to recognition. Inert knowledge is crammed, remembered, and forgotten. Instead, knowledge is retained when embedded in in an organising structure. The knowledge is adaptable, because it is located in connections. The existence of connections implies the existence of a knowledge structure. Can be assisted by verbal cues., narrative structure., concept maps., advance, comparative organisers., analogies and metaphors, etc Elaborate on correcting misconceptions, which may come with cognitive, motivational, and social reasons and can be deeply embedded. Reconsideration through plausible alternative in similar reconceptualisation to old misconception; apply series of systematic questions. Metastructural knowledge, applying consideration to categorisation, correlation, etc to the structure of knowledge itself. (Svinicki, 2004).
Misconceptions in Confucian Heritage Culture, high attainment and deep approaches based on assumptions that repetition equates with rote-learning. Potentially better with smaller class sizes. 3P Model: Presage (student, teaching context) → Task Processing → Nature of Outcome (← components interact with each other). Western education believes in exploration then skill development, CHC believes in reverse. Formal in-class, network out-of-class. Attribution orientated towards effort rather than circumstances. (Biggs, 1996) Not B&M leave out familial sacrifice.
Achievement Goal Theory: A taxonomy of goals based on functioning, rather than trait. [Within Person Consequences (Affective, Cognitive, Subjective)] [Person-Environment Consequences (Social Relationships, Tasks)] (Ford & Nicols, 1992). Compare with Maslow's hierarchy of needs (physological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualisation (1943, 1970). Motivational orientations based on ego (competitive) and task (instrinsic), work avoidance (minimum effort, maximum reward). (Nicholls, 1984, 1985 and Nolen, 1988). Task orientation uses deep processing strategies (structured knowledge); ego-orientation uses surface-level stratgeies (unstructured, 'crammed' knowledge) (Nolen, 1988).
Attribution Theory: Attributions are perceived casues of outcomes. Antecedent conditions (Environment, Personal) -> Perceived Causes (Ability etc) -> Psychological Consequences (Expectancy, Self-Efficacy) -> Behavioural Consequences (Effort, Achievement). Attributions are categorised along dimensions of stability (over time), locus (internal or external), and control. Stability is most closelty related to expectations of success. Importance of feedback in environmental factors; consensus, consistency, distinctiveness. Incorrect schemata and inferences can cause attributional errors, and have proir knowledge of domains. Learned helplessness. Negative outcomes foster attributional search. Complex of Stability/Locus dimensions (Stable-Unstable/Internal(controllable/uncontrollable)-External(controllable/uncontrollable)). Casual dimensions (Locus, Stability, Control) -> Affects (Pride, Self-Esteem; Hope, Helplessness; Shame, Anger, Sympathy) -> Behavioural Consequences. Role of responsible judgments. (Schunk, 2008)
Personal Epistemology. Developing from Perry. Development from either/or dualism to both/and synthesis. Development of stages from dualism, to multiplicity, to commitment within relativism [how is the latter rationally possible without evaluation?]. Situated cognition, deep and surface learning. Interpretative framework, self-assessment. Rather than viewing knowledge as a collection of inert facts, it is more usefully viewed as conceptual tool. (Moore, 2002).
Flow Theory: Enjoyment as difficult; Goals are clear. Feedback is immediate. Balance between opportunity and capacity. Concentration deepens. The Present is what matters. Control of no problem. Sense of time is altered. Ego loss. Csikszentmihalyi (2003)
Teacher Evaluation. Same basic components regardless of who is doing the evaluating; performance indicators, self-assessment, visitation/observation by experts. Objective is to uncover problems. Should be continuous.. (Cox, 1994)
Lectures: Create a natural critical learning environment (encounter skills that they are trying to learn embdeede in interesting questions and tasks), with engagement, raise questions, compare and analyse, use simulations, case studies, field work (and even lectures), end with questions. Get their attention and keep it, with provocative questions, or raise issues in a new way. Start with the students rather than the discipline, directly confront some paradigm or mental model that the students have brought to class. Seek commitments, encourage outside learning, act as if there is an expectation that the students will listen, thank, and respond. Encourage learning outside of class, “the best teachers plan their courses backward”, with learning outcomes decided first. Engage in disciplinary thinking, build an understanding of concepts. Create diverse learning experiences. (Bain 2004)
Engage in a conversation rather than a performance. Use warm language (conversational tones, warm language), make good explanations. Encourage students to engage in conversation. Start with an interventionist intention to stimulate every student’s interests, to communicate clearly and effectively , to provoke responses, to foster deep thinking. (Bain, 2004)
PowerPoint: A presentation is one-sided. Audience merely absorbs information, bullet-points merely copied, creates an illusion of understanding and control. Lighting issues (students operating in the dark). Effective use; remove bullet points, emphasise discovery. Use media-rich presentations, that ask questions rather than present summary facts. Don't waste time with fancy effects (e.g., transitions). Keep the lights on. (Isseks, 2011 - high school chair, NiG)
Note explicit type of presentation software; use Free software argument (e.g., Stallman, 1992). Like a chemistry book which provides the equations (useful), but without an explanation of atomic matter, compounds, molecules, ions and salts, acidity, phases, bonding, reactions, redox, equilibrium, energy etc. Worse still the equations can't be improved if less than optimal. .
Learning Styles: Great multitude of schemes. The David A. Kolb (1984 NiG) styles model is based on the Experiential Learning Theory, as explained in his book Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization, as well as two related approaches toward transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. Peter Honey and Alan Mumford's model; two adaptations were made to Kolb's experiential model. The stages in the cycle were renamed to accord with managerial experiences of decision making/problem solving (Having an experience, Reviewing the experience, Concluding from the experience, Planning the next steps). Secondly, the styles were directly aligned to the stages in the cycle and named Activist, Reflector, Theorist and Pragmatist. One of the most common and widely-used categorizations of the various types of learning styles is Fleming's VAK model (derived from NLP): visual learners; auditory learners; kinesthetic learners or tactile learners. The VAK is also used in (Nolting, 2008), along with "social individual" and "social group", also notes "multiple senses".
Proponents of the use of learning styles in education recommend that teachers assess the learning styles of their students and adapt their classroom methods to best fit each student's learning style. Critics say there is no evidence that identifying an individual student's learning style produces better outcomes. Studies contradict the widespread "meshing hypothesis", that a student will learn best if taught in a method deemed appropriate for the student's learning style. Ample evidence of preferences (mesh teaching style with learning predilection). Limited education resources to more empirically tested practices. (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, Bjork, 2008). Academic performance based on learning style was found to be significant (p
Positive disintegration (1964) Kazimierz Dąbrowski; Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) Francoy Gagne's (2000) (not in guide)
Professional Development: Portfolio approach provides professionalism, record of experience, guide to career learning, support critical reflection, links theory and practise. Biographical approach. (Bloor, Butterworth, 1996)
Interest: If committed to a necessary but uninteresting task, individuals may engage in strategies to make regular performance interesting, such as emphasising purpose, and will redefine the activity in a more positive manner. (Sansone et.al, 1992). Regulatory fit theory emphasizes the relation between people’s activity orientation, such as thinking of an activity as fun or serious, and the manner of activity engagement (e.g., free-choice, structured) that the surrounding situation supports. (Higgins et.al, 2010).
Scaffolding: Situated learning and apprenticeship. Students are always learning. Design a learning environment that reduces time, influences long-term retention, increases likelihood of future learning, supports learning, proves correct learning and free of gaps. Deliver just-in-time aviation training. Learner is an apprentice, a participant rather than just an observer. (Gibbons, O'Neal, Fairweather, 1997)
Cognitive apprenticeship. Target skills are in continuous use in apprenticeship, abstracted in schooling. Needed for integration. Cognitive and metacognitive strategies and processes considered more important than skills, facts, or conceptual knowledge. Modeling (or repeated observation), coaching (attempt to replicate, execute process), fading (leaving apprentice conducting the activity themselves). Cognitive apprenticeship refers to the focus of learning through guided experience on cogntive and metacognitive rather than skills. Similar to Vygostky’s ZPD (NiG, 1934). Notable differences is emphasise on decontextualising so ability can be used in multiple contexts. Framework for leaning environments needs to be attentive to content (domains, heuristsics), methods (modelling, coaching, scaffolding), Sequence (increasing complexity, diversity etc), sociology (situated learning, culture of expertise, motivations, cooperation, competition), (Collins, Brown, Newman, 1989)
Success of modelling and coaching method in computer science by inclusion of pseudo code algorithms and group participatory mutual coaching (Volet, 1991)
Learning Tools: Specifically of the learner-centered, constructivist, and sociolcultural and collaborative variety. Mind as a computer (serial), mind as brain (parallel processing), mind as a rhizome (in a network). Learning as information processing, learning as experiential growth, learning as socio-cultural dialogic activity. Technology as a driver. Transmission model declining, collaborative increasing. Distance-learning technologies contributing. No canonical constructivism (e.g., cognitive constructivism (Piaget), social constructivism (Vygotsky)). Learning is transformed from the silent and solitary to the social and communicative. ZPD not just wit the individual, but with coparticipants and tools. Cognitive apprenticeship, assisted learning, scaffolded instruction, intersubjectivity, activity setting as a unit of analysis. (Bonk, Cunningham, 1998)
Mentoring and Relationships: Protege, to protect and develop. Importance derives from anxiety and reluctance at confronting life changes. Initiation may vary from initiation by protege, mentor, or serendipity. Profession and personal differentation, formal and informal, awareness of flawed mentors – especially in cross-sexual dyads. Mentoring involves mutual choices, relationship extends beyond professional interest, no evidence of threat, mutual need exists, no disadvantage to protege, evidence of affection and trust. (Carruthers, 1993) Perceiving individual differences. Relate personality traits to behaviour; values and preferences; styles of thinking; past experiences; (Burns, 1996).
Learning Outcomes: Intended learning outcomes. Focus on achievement rather than what has been taught. What the student can demonstrate. Problem of objectives is they are written in terms of teacher intention or expected learning. (Kennedy, 2007)
Assessment: If assessment is conducted infrequently and lightly it will will allow exploration, will be more life-like, will tend to towards the mean in summative values, will encourage surface approach to learning, emphasises coverage rather than depth, unreliable and thus arbitrary, can damage motivations, discourage self-assessment, produces false or useless hard-data. Reasons for assessment include: Expectations, motivations, feedback, remedy mistrakes, option choice, readiness for progression, diagnose faults, performance indicate, degree classification, performance indicator for staff. Formative and summative assessment distinction. A course distinction (can be both) where some assessment is for grading purposes (summative) and other is for educational experience (learning experience). Formative assessment provides a model for self-directed learning and intellectual autonomy. (Brown and Knight, 1994).
Different methods of assessment appropriate for evaluating different parts of subject matter. From a student's point of view, assessment is the curriculum. Necessity of useful feedback. A sophisticated theory of assessment is about understanding the process and outcomes of student learning and understadning that students who have done the learning. A teacher with a well-developed understanding of assessment will strive to connect goals of learning with assessment strategies. (Ramsden, 1992).
Assessment in a competency-based-training system; concentrating on summative. Nees to be valid (assess correct skills), reliable (exact criteria must be set), flexible (capable of being resolved for all students e.g., distance education), fair (provision of information prior to examination). Five forms (referencing Hager, et al 1994) by which learning can be assessed- observation, skills text, simulations. evidence, questioning. Show evidence of understanding and of performance. (Smith, Keatin, 1997).
Diversity: Cultural differences in 'western' and 'eastern' education, including divergence in Anglo-American and continental European traditions. Preparation of students to be academically flexible by exposing them to a variety of learning models. Extend flexibility in individual cognitive styles to culturally heterogenous groups. (Spizzica, 1977).
Treating al students equally; Often it is not the students that are deficient, it is the mode of instruction. Three prerequisites to teaching all students equally: attitude, perspective, knowledge. Ways to resolve this: be an activist, facilitate active learning, incorporate new scholarship of minorities, provide a safe environment, use continuous assessment, practise these skills every day etc. (Lou, 1994).
Considerations of race, ethnicity and gender. Recognise biases, sensitive terminology, rectify discriminatory patterns. (Davis, 1993)
Grow re: lecturing and collaborative learning. Staged Self-Directed Learning Model. Derived from Situated Leadership (Hersey, Blanchard, 1988). Learners advances through stages. Teaching matches stage of self-directing. Different methods proposed. Problems arise in mismatch between learner stage and teaching style. Situated leadership argues for readiness (from management) a combination of ability and motivation. Also for maturing into adulthood (Knowles, 1980). Goal of SSDL is life-long, self-directed learners. Good teaching is situational. Self-directed ability varies in an individual between subject matter. Self-direction (like learned helplessness) is teachable. SDL is a "higher mental function" (Vygotsky).
Stage 1 Dependent student, Authority/Coach Teacher. Use drill, information lecture. Overcome difficulties and resistance. Teacher centered, must stablish credibility and authority. Discipline and direction. Transfer knowledge.
Stage 2 Interested/Motivator student, Guide teacher. Inspiring and engaging lectures, guided discussion. Goal setting, and learning strategies. Shape and mold learning outlook.
Stage 3. Involved student, Facilitator teacher. Future equal with teacher. Seminar, group projects. Critical thinking, self-directed. Guide.
Stage 4. Self-Directed, Consultant/delegator teacher. Internship, dissertation, individual or self-directed study group. Independent students, collegial relationship with teacher.
Severe mismatch at S1 student/S4 teacher (students resent lack of direction) and S4 student/S1 teacher (students resent authoritarianism). Every stage requires balancing the teacher's power with the student's emerging self-direction. S1/S2 more pedagogical, S3/S4 more andragogical. Possible teacher trap: S1 to be punitive, stilfle initiative, create dependence. S2 teacher remains on centre stage, leaves no self-motivation., S3 disappear from group, demoralise through too democratic, S4 lose touch, fail to monitor progress, OR insidiously infiltrate. Possible student traps: False assertions of independence. Resisting direction; becoming "resistant dependent". Courses can be planned to move through the stages. However students will vary. Therefore plan will have to be non-linear and iterative.
Teachers need clear conception of their role. Neutral facilitator is non-role. (Tennant 1991)
Mature-aged students enjoyment. Enjoyment from internal characteristics, intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, godo climate, teacher qualities, content delivery, learner's commitment, rewards for learning. Education does not occur in isolation, treated as part of living on its own. Something that the students generate rather than being imposed upon them. Utilitarian interest. Learning should encounter the portrayal of real-life experiences. (Ferris, Gerber, 1996)